what is vulnerability in disaster management

At the community level, a number of researchers and humanitarian and development non-governmental organisations, as well as some local governments, have implemented vulnerability and capacity assessments (VCA), primarily through participatory methods. As supply chains become globalized, so does the vulnerability of businesses to supply chain disruptions, for example, when disasters affect critical production nodes or distribution links. Vulnerability to Disasters 1. Inzamul Haque Sazal sazalgeo@outlook.com 2. Capacity development requires not only building technical capacities (such as environmental management) but also the promotion of leadership and other managerial and functional capacities. Vulnerability Analysis David Alexander University College London 2. The failure of flood protection infrastructure, a failure to anticipate the disaster, and a badly managed response all exacerbated and magnified the pre-existing conditions of social vulnerability and racial inequality in New Orleans (Levitt and Whitaker, 2009; Tierney, 2006; Amnesty International, 2010; Masozera et al., 2007). These pressures can be released by taking measures to reduce vulnerability at various points along the causal chain (Twigg, 2004). However, it is now understood that exposure is separate to the ‘susceptibility’ element of vulnerability since it is possible to be exposed, whilst at the same time not susceptible to natural hazards. For instance, people who live on plains are more vulnerable to floods than people who live higher up. Physical risk assessment refers to the process of identifying and evaluating hazards. Emphasising economic diversity and resilient livelihoods. Studies focussed on post-disaster recovery are excluded. Engineers in the Philippines and Indonesia, for instance, are developing vulnerability calculations relevant to their own national building stocks. In relation to hazards and disasters, vulnerability is a concept that links the relationship that people have with their environment to social forces and institutions and the cultural values that sustain and contest … Vulnerability and Risk in Disaster Management Published: February 7, 2016 Vulnerability is the extent to which a community, structure, services or geographic area is likely to be damaged or … Unit -V. Emerging approaches in Disaster Management- Three Stages 1. Examples of potentially vulnerable groups include: In a disaster, women in general may be affected differently from men because of their social status, family responsibilities or reproductive role, but they are not necessarily vulnerable. Disaster, as defined by the United Nations, is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or society, which involve widespread human, material, economic or environmental impacts that exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources [1]. Many of these factors are rooted in changing local conditions, but the picture is incomplete without acknowledging the national and global socio-economic and political structures that constrain local development opportunities. By focusing on children the project minimised caste exclusion and made interest spread quickly throughout the community. Such resources can be physical or material, but they can also be found in the way a community is organized or in the skills or attributes of individuals and/or organizations in the community. Vulnerability is most often associated with poverty, but it can also arise when people are isolated, insecure and defenceless in the face of risk, shock or stress. Vulnerability in this context can be defined as the diminished capacity of an individual or group to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural or man-made hazard. It has many dimensions, it is driven by factors at different levels, from local to global, and it is dynamic as it alters under the pressure of these driving forces (Twigg, 2004). Resistance against natural hazards . the uninsured informal sector, vulnerable rural livelihoods, dependence on single industries, globalisation of business and supply chains, etc. Vulnerability is formally defined as “the characteristics of a person or group and their situation that influences their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist, and recover from the impact of a natural hazard.” … A VCA considers a wide range of environmental, economic, social, cultural, institutional and political pressures that create vulnerability and is approached through a number of different frameworks (Benson et al., 2007). Owing to its different facets, there is no one single method for assessing vulnerability. What is the most significant vulnerability facing the emergency management discipline and why? Vulnerability can be a challenging concept to understand because it tends to mean different things to different people and because it is often described using a variety of terms including ‘predisposition’, ‘fragility’, ‘weakness’, ‘deficiency’ or ‘lack of capacity’. They are also resourceful and resilient in a crisis and play a crucial role in recovery. Despite some divergence over the meaning of vulnerability, most experts agree that understanding vulnerability requires more than analysing the direct impacts of a hazard. The … Some definitions of vulnerability have included exposure in addition to susceptibility to harm. Vulnerability changes over time because many of the processes that influence vulnerability are dynamic, including rapid urbanisation, environmental degradation, market conditions and demographic change (DFID, 2004). Children from the Malda District © World Vision - India (In partnership with World Vision UK, the Government of India and UNICEF). poverty and inequality, marginalisation, social exclusion and discrimination by gender, social status, disability and age (amongst other factors) psychological factors, etc. Vulnerability also concerns the wider environmental and social conditions that limit people and communities to cope with the impact of hazard (Birkmann, 2006). By including vulnerability in our understanding of disaster risk, we acknowledge the fact that disaster risk not only depends on the severity of hazard or the number of people or assets exposed, but that it is also a reflection of the susceptibility of people and economic assets to suffer loss and damage. A planning tool to prioritise and sequence actions and inputs. Poverty is both a driver and consequence of disaster risk (particularly in countries with weak risk governance) because economic pressures force people to live in unsafe locations (see exposure) and conditions (Wisner et al., 2004). WHAT IS VULNERABILITY ? e.g. Local engineers are increasingly dedicating themselves to understanding the vulnerability of their local building stock (which varies significantly from country to country and within countries) to different natural hazards. The Kashmir earthquake illustrates how poor rural livelihoods in remote areas configure mortality risk from earthquakes. Post Disaster stage-Rehabilitation. The characteristics determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes which increase the susceptibility of an individual, a community, assets or systems to the … The concept of social vulnerability within the disaster management context was introduced in the 1970s when researchers recognized that vulnerability also involves socioeconomic factors that affect … What is the most significant vulnerability facing the emergency management discipline and why? One example of mitigation at University Hospital is the 96 Hour Business Continuity Plan, wh… Levels of vulnerability (and exposure) help to explain why some non-extreme hazards can lead to extreme impacts and disasters, while some extreme events do not (IPCC, 2012). 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